Plan de Descontaminación Atmosférica de Coyhaique: ¿solución o parche?

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En la región de Aysén, la ciudad de Coyhaique, ha sufrido las consecuencias de la contaminación provocada principalmente por la “combustión residencial de leña”, según lo señalado en el Plan De Descontaminación Atmosférica de Coyhaique, enmarcado en La Estrategia De Planes De Descontaminación 2014 – 2018.

Por otro lado, y antes de escribir estas líneas, revisaba el plan de descontaminación del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, tras lo cual rápidamente manifesté varias interrogantes, las cuales iré planteando en lo sucesivo, para luego analizar en detalle.

En primer lugar, ¿Bajo qué condiciones climáticas se ven enfrentados los Coyhaiquinos durante el año? Mucho sabemos que en invierno las temperaturas varían entre 8 y -0,7 ºC, con máximas absolutas que alcanzan los -22 ºC. En donde precisamente, son estas las temperaturas presentes durante casi todo el año, según lo señalado dentro del Plan.

En segundo lugar, ¿Cuál es el diagnóstico del ministerio, dando explicación frente a este alto consumo de leña? Entre las principales causales que tiene el Plan de Descontaminación son: “viviendas con alta demanda de energía debido a la precariedad de su construcción”, “bajas temperaturas y deficiente ventilación de la cuenca”, “bajo precio de la leña comparado con otros combustibles”, “fácil acceso y disponibilidad de la leña”, y el “arraigo cultural presente en la población”.

En tercer lugar, ¿Cuáles son los reales objetivos y medidas que considera el Plan? El plan considera 4 medidas estructurales:

1.- Reacondicionamiento térmico de viviendas, para disminuir el requerimiento energético.

2.- Sustitución de sistemas de calefacción contaminantes por sistemas eficientes y con menos emisiones.

3.- El mejoramiento de la calidad de la leña que se utiliza.

4.- Educación y difusión a la comunidad.

Señalándose además que, “la implementación de las medidas estructurales, tiene como base una visión integral del problema considerando la economía local en torno a la leña, el arraigo cultural en el uso de la calefacción tradicional y el problema asociado a los costos de calefacción”.

Finalmente, y tras tener la noción de alguna de las características e implicancias del Plan De Descontaminación, creo que se debería cuestionar sí estas medidas ¿son una verdadera solución al problema medioambiental que viene sufriendo Coyhaique?

Siguiendo la misma línea de análisis, las “condiciones climáticas” adversas, y que durante gran parte del año afectan y condicionan a la Región de Aysén al uso de una mayor carga energética destinada a calefacción, es un hecho innegable, y del cual las autoridades son conscientes. En segundo lugar, cada una de las “causales” señaladas anteriormente son también una realidad indiscutible, sin embargo no deja de llamar mi atención el hecho que, siendo las autoridades “conscientes” de tales problemáticas, planteen “objetivos y medidas estructurales” tan insuficientes y poco concretas para dar un real solución al problema de fondo que en sí es el poder bajar los dramáticos Índices de Calidad del Aire referido a partículas (ICAP), teniendo en cuenta que el “mejoramiento de la calidad de la leña” o la “sustitución de calefactores a leña por otros que sean más eficientes” pero que finalmente actúan bajo el mismo principio de “combustión”, no va a lograr reducir en gran medida la cantidad de material particulado emitido por vivienda, por lo cual se seguirá afectando la calidad del aire, siendo medidas insuficientes y que claramente lo que buscan no es una solución definitiva, si no que generar una medida “parche”, que por otro lado se enmarca dentro de un plan acción de muy larga duración que no está enfocado en acabar finalmente con esta problemática a corto plazo.

Por otro lado, y considerando que las implementaciones de estas medidas estructurales se plantean basándose también en “el problema asociado a los costos de calefacciónes que me parece inaceptable que esta sea precisamente una de las bases a considerar dentro de su visión integral, para posteriormente dar una posible “solución”, que al parecer no es la misma que desearíamos la mayoría de los Patagones, ya que claramente queda de manifiesto que aquí no hay una real intención por parte de las autoridades, de querer gastar o subsidiar, como en otras regiones, otros métodos de calefacción o de por ejemplo, generar una mayor inversión en la implementación de un sistema de energía renovable adecuado a nuestra geografía, que pueda ser capaz de sustentar y saciar las necesidades de cada uno de nosotros, sin tener que hacer que los “mayores costos” se solventen a costa del bolsillo de mucha gente humilde, la cual ya debe lidiar con elevados costos de agua, luz y ahora calefacción.

¿Es realmente justo esto para la gente?, ¿se deberían tomar otras medidas?, ¿están velando realmente por nuestras necesidades? Son preguntas que frecuentemente intento resolver, y que me gustaría que ustedes mismos se respondan.

Me gustaría hacer hincapié en todo el aspecto de salud que lógicamente conlleva esta situación, en donde estudios previos han demostrado en cuanto a la etiología de las enfermedades respiratorias, existe una relación directa entre el aumento de la contaminación atmosférica, y la capacidad de provocar crisis bronquiales obstructivas en niños con síntomas respiratorios. Además de tener presente que las enfermedades respiratorias constituyen un problema de salud mundial debido a las altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas.

Por otro lado, las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) constituidas por un complejo grupo de enfermedades que afectan las vías respiratorias, y que posiblemente pudiesen verse aumentadas tras las adversas condiciones ambientales, son precisamente una de las causas más comunes de mortalidad en los niños de los países en vías de desarrollo, responsables de 4 del estimado de 15 millones de muertes que ocurren en los niños menores de 5 años de edad cada año, en donde los lactantes conforman dos tercios de esas muertes.

Es por esto que manifiesto mi preocupación con respecto a lo que está sucediendo actualmente con esta localidad ubicada en la zona austral de Chile, debido a que claramente es una situación que puede jugar un rol importante en la incidencia de enfermedades respiratorias, asociado a la presencia de brotes estacionales de virus respiratorios que año tras año participan de las epidemias de cuadros respiratorios. Algo que no tomo a la ligera cuando se trata de la salud de nuestros propios abuelos, padres, hijos o nietos, considerando que estos los altos índices de calidad del aire (ICAP), en ocasiones nos han posicionado como la ciudad más contaminada de América Latina, según señala el propio Marcelo Mena Carrasco, subsecretario de Medio Ambiente de Chile, “En el año 2014 la contaminación en Coyhaique tocó fondo”, le dice a BBC Mundo.

A causa de todo lo antes mencionado, y debido a la gran contaminación ambiental y factores climáticos a los que se viven en esta región, creo que es de gran importancia poder tomar medidas más atingentes y drásticas, de manera de evitar posibles consecuencias de salud a futuro, junto con aumentar la promoción de salud dentro la comunidad, sobre todo considerando que este fenómeno cada día va en aumento.

 

POR Felipe Sepúlveda Leiva

 Estudiante de Medicina

 Universidad Andrés Bello

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