¿Dónde están los medios de comunicación?: Un conflicto que ha demostrado la cuestionable “pluralidad” de la prensa

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¿En qué Chile estamos viviendo?, ¿somos realmente los jaguares de Latinoamérica?, ¿qué significa ser un país “en vía al desarrollo” ?, ¿qué significa nuestra supuesta democracia?, ¿se traduce nuestra democracia en libertad?

Estos diferentes cuestionamientos en conjunto a los recientes hechos de violencia institucional ocurridos en diferentes regiones del sur de chile (Operación Huracán, 23 de septiembre 2017, zona sur del país), me han llevado a intentar en esta pequeña columna a tensionar, cuestionar y reflexionar respecto a ¿qué sucede con la supuesta “libertad” de prensa en este conflicto? El problema cuenta con 19 comuneros o participantes muertos a los cuales no se les ha esclarecido ni se han tocado las extrañas situaciones de defunción. Todo esto enmarcado en un país “en vía al desarrollo”, “jaguar de Latinoamérica”, “democrático y libre” (debo dejar en claro que no hay ánimos de proponer absolutos, solo quiero mostrarles mi humilde punto de vista).

Ya no es mito urbano la difícil situación de violencia que se vive en nuestro país (especialmente en el sur). Situaciones de violencia en la cual se ven envueltos una importante cantidad de actores, entre los cuales, para fines de esta pequeña hipótesis, creo necesario mencionar como al gran empresariado, los diferentes gremios, las iglesias, el Estado y las comunidades con procesos de reivindicación, tanto territorial como política.

En este sentido, me gustaría evidenciar la particular relación que considero existente entre los primeros cuatro actores contrapuestos al quinto y en especial, la forma en la cual la institución social “medios de comunicación tradicionales” -comprendiéndolos como los medios con mayor cantidad de recursos, que han tenido la posibilidad de llegar más expeditamente a mayor cantidad de la población- se han puesto al servicio del polo económicamente dominante, insertándose en un conflicto, pero en reiteradas ocasiones simplificando el tema central y generando una disociación de la realidad en la opinión pública.

Desde mi punto de vista -y bastante superficialmente- creo que la relación que se genera entre los diferentes actores se materializan de esta forma: los diferentes gremios (agricultores y camioneros) se relacionan en algunas ocasiones económicamente por medio de prestaciones de servicios a la gran empresa (forestales, mineras, salmoneras, hidroeléctricas), que a su vez son propiedad de las grandes familias Oligarcas Terratenientes, organizadas en diversas corporaciones privadas o holding.

Estos grupos se han relacionado directamente hacia variados valores conservadores de las iglesias con una extraña relación de cooperación mutua y, por medio de estas mismas, han tenido la oportunidad de ingresar dentro de las diversas comunidades como ente político, social y cultural que en algunas circunstancias han poseído la capacidad de transformar formas de concepción internas y eternas.

En este entramado de relaciones, el Estado se ha puesto históricamente al servicio de este polo dominante, orientando la mayor cantidad de herramientas, recursos e instituciones no hacia la resolución del conflicto, sino que hacia el agudizamiento del mismo por medio de la aplicación de la clásica “mano dura”, materializada en la militarización de la zona y la aplicación de una dictatorial ley antiterrorista (criticada unilateralmente desde organismos internacionales como ONU). De esa forma,          se omite una voluntad real para identificar el origen y una forma coordinada de resolución del conflicto-servicio y se posiciona un Estado a favor de las familias oligarcas, terrateniente y corporativas. Es así como creo que las comunidades, en proceso reivindicativos políticos y culturales, claramente se encuentran en una posición desfavorable de poder ante el particular polo de actores relacionados anteriormente expuestos.

Quizás ustedes se están preguntando: ¿Cómo todo esto se relaciona con los medios de comunicación que he definido como “tradicionales? En Chile, según algunas fuentes, más del 90% de la prensa escrita es concentrada por el holding Copesa y la familia Edward, que son los propietarios de medios emblemáticos como La Cuarta, La Tercera, La Hora, Revista paula, La Segunda, El Diario Austral, Las Ultimas Noticias, El Mercurio, entre otros. Por esto me pregunto, ¿Qué tan plurales y libres son los medios de comunicación tradicionales en Chile?

Recapitulando esta clase oligarca, es propietaria de grandes fundos en territorios disputados, es accionista o propietaria de la gran empresa que ha explotado estos territorios en disputa y también, es accionista o propietaria de los medios de comunicación tradicionales que nos “informan” (o preferiría decir desinforman) de las situaciones ocurridas en las zonas de conflicto. Estos medios, que por cierto son más tradicionales debido a la mayor cantidad de recursos que ostentan, crean una hegemonía de la comunicación, un holding de medios de comunicación.

Por otro lado, el Estado y las Iglesias con sus propios medios de comunicación televisivas o escritas responden a la relación antes mencionada posicionando conceptos en conjunto, como, por ejemplo, el de “terrorista”. Término por el cual se han tildado mediáticamente a gran cantidad de los ciudadanos juzgados en este contexto, que en la mayoría de las investigaciones han sido absueltos. De esta forma, más que sea un concepto, se posiciona, en la opinión pública, como un nuevo enemigo interno de la nación.

Para comenzar a concluir con este humilde análisis comprendiendo que el tema en sí mismo ostenta gran cantidad de variables, puntos de vista y sin ánimo alguno de posicionar absoluto, la única finalidad de generar un cuestionamiento en el lector, es preguntarnos por la denominada Operación Huracán: ¿Será un nuevo montaje policial y mediático que sacude nuevamente las bases morales de la pluralidad institucional y la ética de los medios de comunicación tradicionales?

Creo que la difícil red de relaciones expuesta anteriormente, desde una aproximación superficial, entre gran empresa, gremio, credo y estado, constituye una célula importante del país de hoy, entregando un extraño sentido a nuestra “vía al desarrollo” marcada por sangre, ¿Qué significa ser llamados “los jaguares de Latinoamérica”?

Me gustaría dejarles el cuestionamientos respecto a si estas situaciones, ¿no los lleva  a otra época de nuestro país? Los principales líderes tomados detenidos y juzgados como “terroristas”, gigantescos montajes mediáticos al servicio de un poder oligárquico, grupos de inteligencia policial operando indiscriminadamente , ¿no les trae ningún recuerdo? Claramente la “libertad de prensa” en nuestro país se traduce en un control prácticamente hegemónico de la institución social en “los medios tradicionales de comunicación”, porque es imposible encontrarse en similares condiciones de reproducción mediática con la desigualdad de recursos inherente a los cuestionables financiamientos anteriormente expuestos.

 

Por Ivan Ojeda Pereira

Estudiante de Sociología

Universidad de Chile

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